From 2016 to 2018, four successive below-average rainy seasons resulted in crop failure, widespread livestock deaths and loss of assets, thus causing large-scale population displacements, hunger and malnutrition. In 2018, unexpected heavy rains and cyclone Sagar led to widespread flooding and damage to infrastructure and shelter as well as an increase in water-borne disease.
Current estimates from UNOCHA put the number of people in need of urgent humanitarian assistance at 4.2 million. In addition, there are two million internally displaced people across the whole of Somalia, out of a total population of approximately 12 million. A new Somali Federal Government was elected in 2017, and successful Presidential elections took place later the same year. Despite this progress, security remains a major challenge in parts of the country, resulting in instability and continued displacement.