Pakistan continues to face extreme poverty, inequality, recurrent disasters and security challenges. Ranking low on the Human Development Index (HDI), 30% of its population live below the poverty line. Widespread income and gender inequalities are a major barrier and lack of, along with poor return on, assets are preventing the extreme poor people accessing services and taking up opportunities to lift themselves out of the poverty. Pakistan also faces a multitude of natural and complex disasters, further increasing vulnerabilities. Climate change, food insecurity and under-nutrition are the key challenges that the extremely poor face in Pakistan.